—- Please Follow the instructions —-  Essay #5 Argument Essay Purpose:  To demonstrate our ability to write a well-supported essay; to show our ability to do accurate works cited pages; to demonstrate our ability to cite sources using MLA format. Audience:  people who may be unfamiliar with this topic Paper format:  typed, double-spaced using Times New Roman and 12 pt. font; 1″ margins all round; original title; name and date; separate Works Cited page; correct essay formatting and indentation of paragraphs.  I will provide you with the correct Works Cited page.  All you will have to do is copy it. Note:  This paper must be handed in by the due date.  I will not accept any late papers. Grade Distribution: Rough Draft:  30 points Accurate Works Cited Page:  20 points Essay:  500 points Assignment:  Write a 4-5 page argumentative paper on the following topic:  Who Needs Privacy?  You must use the following articles which are in your Week 12 Module to support your thesis and claims:  “Tracking Is an Assault on Liberty” by Nicolas Carr; “Web Users Get as Much as They Give” by Jim Harper; and “FacebookIs Using You” by Lori Andrews.  You must have two quotes from each of the three articles related to your topic.  I will not accept any other sources that the three mentioned above.  You may not use I believe, I think, or In my opinion anywhere in your essay! Essay Specifics: Before you begin writing your essay, it would help if you created an outline to follow.  The type of outline you create will depend on whether your readers primarily agree or disagree with you.  Below are two examples: Readers Primarily Agree with You Strengthen their convictions by organizing your argument around a series of reasons backed by supporting evidence or by refuting opposing arguments point by point. I.  Present the Issue II.  Provide a thesis statement – a direct statement of your position III.  Present your most plausible reasons and evidence IV.  Concede or refute opposing reasons or objections to your argument V.  Conclude:  Reaffirm your position Readers Primarily Disagree with You Begin by emphasizing common ground, and make a concession to show that you have considered the opposing position carefully and with an open mind. I.  Present the Issue:  Reframe the issue in terms of common values II.  Concede:  Acknowledge the wisdom of an aspect of the opposing position III.  Provide a thesis statement – a direct statement of your position, qualified as necessary IV.  Present your most plausible reasons and evidence V.  Conclude:  Reiterate shared values Whatever organizational strategy you adopt, do not hesitate to change your outline as necessary while drafting and revising.  For instance, you might find it more effective to hold back on presenting your own position until you have discussed unacceptable alternatives.  or you might if find a more powerful way to order the reasons for supporting your position.  The purpose of an outline is to identify the basic components of your argument and to help you organize them effectively, not to lock you into a particular structure. Review what you have written to see if you have something that would help you frame or reframe the issue for your readers while also grabbing their attention to try out some of these opening strategies: Begin with statistics that would help readers grasp the importance of your topic. Use a personal anecdote to make the issue tangible or to appeal to readers’ emotions: Example:  My students nod along until we get to racist and sexist speech.  Some can’t grasp why, if we restrict so many forms of speech, we don’t also restrict hate speech (Nielsen, par. 1). Start with a surprising statement to capture your readers’ attention: McDonald’s is bad for your kids (Etzioni, par 1). Use a hypothetical quotation to indicate how people typically think about the issue: When the government gathers or analyzes personal information, many people say they’re not worried.  “I’ve got nothing to hide,” they declare (Solove 143). Remember that a strong thesis or claim A.  Does not simply introduce the topic. Weak:  I’m going to write about single-sex education because I’m interested in that topic. Strong:  Girls should learn in girls-only classes because they become more self-confident and perform better in math and science. B.  Do not just state an opinion that is vague. Weak:  Cyberbullying is a bad thing for children. Strong:  Cyberbullying destroys self-esteem, creates anxiety, and inhibits the social development of children. C.  Do not just make statements of fact that everyone would agree with. Weak:  Social media is a very common way to communicate. Strong:  Social media is a useful tool for influencing political, moral, and social opinions. Building Strong Arguments The argument is developed in the body paragraphs.  Each body paragraph includes a topic sentence that identifies the reason from the thesis.  To make an argument strong and convincing, each reason is supported by evidence such as examples, facts, statistics, quotations, and personal experience.  The more supporting you have, the stronger your argument becomes. To find strong evidence, ask yourself these questions: A.  What facts or statistics would most likely convince my reader? B.  What quotations or examples clearly support my point of view? C.  What personal experiences would make my point of view more persuasive? Counterargument and Refutation When writing an argumentative essay, you must consider what people who are opposed to your stand will say and try to find ways to weaken their argument.  Follow these steps to develop a counterargument and refutation: 1.  Introduce the counterargument.  Explain the argument and identify the people who believe it. Some critics of single-sex classrooms argue that single-sex education is dangerous because it reinforces gender stereotypes. 2.  Describe the evidence or reasons people give for this counterargument. In their view, a same-sex environment makes girls and boys emphasize the differences in each other and adopt stereotypical behaviors.  In other words, girls act more passively and boys act more aggressively. 3.  Acknowledge any part of the argument that may be true or partly true and explain why.  Then refute the counterargument by calling attention to a weakness based on evidence or reasoning.  A refutation should be based on evidence, logic, objective facts, not emotions or bias. While it may be true that same-sex grouping has the capacity to make boys and girls aware of differences, we should not draw the conclusion that they believe stereotypically as a  result.  Some research has shown that, in fact, students behave in a less stereotypical way.  Similarly, a study by Park, Behrman, and Choi looked at girls in single-sex and coed physics classes.  They assigned girls to each class and found that those “in the all-girls classroom were less likely to regard physics as a boys’ subject, compared to girls who had been randomly assigned to the coed classroom” (132). 4.  Conclude by showing how your evidence disproves the counterargument. In other words, the single-sex environment allowed girls to be free of the limits and expectations that they felt in the mixed gender classroom. Conclusion Your conclusion should contain the following elements: A.  It states the reason why your point of view is more valid that the opposing views. Thus, studying in a single-sex environment has important benefits.  It can make girls be more self-confident and improve their grades in math and science, two subjects that can lead to jobs in growing fields like nursing and biomedical research. B.  It emphasizes the importance of the topic being argued. Girls deserve to have the opportunity to enjoy these benefits, no matter where they live. C.  It ends with a strong comment, recommendation, or call to action. Girls-only classes must be available everywhere to make that possible.

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